The Tourist Board of the Istrian County awards one Golden Goat – Capra d’oro as the main prize and four plaques to the best in each of the published categories. Awards are given to an individual or group for outstanding contribution in the field of marketing activities in the tourism of Istria, especially in the field of product improvement and tourism promotion for activities, products and projects in the Istrian County.The ceremony of awarding prizes and recognitions in the field of tourism, with which the Tourist Board of Istria traditionally marks the end of the year, was held in Porec on December 15, in the packed hall of the attractive Villa Polesini. “In a series of record years in terms of physical indicators, 2016 is by far the best tourist year. We will realize more than 3,8 million arrivals, more than 25 million overnight stays, for the first time in recent history more than 400.000 passengers at Pula Airport. In total, if we compare this with last year, we will realize 300.000 more guests and 1,6 million more overnight stays than last year. These excellent results have been achieved thanks to excellent cooperation between the private and public sectors and wise leadership in both the private and public sectors. Clearly, man is the most important link and the key to success, so this year we would like to thank all the employees in tourism who presented this season with their knowledge, skills and abilities. ”Point out the Tourist Board of the Istrian County and add that in 2017 alone more than 1,8 billion kuna will be invested in new accommodation projects and raising the level of services, and that the mentioned investments will enable Istria to implement findings and settings from the Istrian Master Plan and greater competitiveness of Istrian and Croatian tourism.In the next year we expect a very good result again, continuation of activities on strategic partnership projects, crossmarketing and cobranding projects, Fly to Istria projects, digital marketing projects – Share Istria, but new development projects such as Wedding, Anti Oxy, Fireworks and Outdoor, pointed out Denis Ivošević, director of the Istria County Tourist BoardAs many as 39 applications were received for the invitation to apply for the Golden Goat – Capra d’oro awards, published on the occasion of the World Tourism Day! According to the proposal of the Golden Goat – Capra d’oro Award Committee for 2016, the Tourist Board of the Istria County Tourist Board has made a decision on awarding the following recognitions and awards:Winners of the annual award of the Tourist Board of the Istrian County Golden Goat – Capra d’oro for 2016Lifetime Achievement Award, for outstanding contribution to the development and promotion of Istrian tourism: Selimir OgnjenovićAward for special contribution to the promotion of Istrian tourism: Urban CerarAward to a foreign partner for a special contribution to the promotion of Istrian tourism: Mario BussoWinners of the Golden Goat – Capra d’oro award for 2016:Category: EventsEvents Lifestyle – Maistra dd Rovinj-Vrsar: Rovinj Beach Polo Cup 2016Events Festivals – MPG doo Zagreb and Valamar Riviera dd Poreč: Poreč Open Air: Festival of Life 2016Events Sport – Ribarić consulting and Association IsTRIa, Pula: Ironman 70.3 PulaEvents Gourmet – Gračišće Municipality: Gračišće wine exhibitionEvents Special products – Adria salsa productions and Los Mamberos Association: Sea, Sun & Salsa RovinjCategory: Innovative productValamar Riviera dd Porec – Perfect Experience Creator Category: Tourist productKoral doo Plomin – Hotel Peteani, Labin Vision doo Novigrad-Cittanova – Boutique Hotel RivalmareQuadruvium doo – Zipline Pazin CaveCategory: Visual communicationsLaguna Novigrad dd – Aminess Hotels & Campsites
60.210 tourists welcomed the New Year in Croatia, of which 44.390 were foreign tourists, writes Index.hr.Most foreign tourists came from Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Germany, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Switzerland, Hungary, the USA and Serbia, while the most visited destinations were Zagreb, Porec, Dubrovnik, Opatija, Mali Losinj, Umag, Split, Rovinj, Labin and Zadar. The morning data of the evisitor also show that 43.825 tourists stayed in hotels, 983 in camps, and 8.295 in household facilities.Half a million overnight stays were realized in December According to the eVisitor system, in the period from 1 to 28 December, there were 249.529 arrivals and 495.437 overnight stays in Croatia, of which 83 were domestic guests who made almost 200 overnight stays, according to the Ministry of Tourism.Source: MINTThe highest number of overnight stays in December was realized by the City of Zagreb (137 thousand), followed by Primorje-Gorski Kotar County (75 thousand), Istria County (63 thousand), Split-Dalmatia County (44 thousand), Dubrovnik-Neretva County (40 thousand), Zadar County. County (30 thousand), Krapina-Zagorje County (17 thousand)…
Pinterest Share Email Since 1993, Boston Medical Center’s (BMC) Project ASSERT has offered alcohol and drug use screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment to patients treated for intoxication in the ED. In 2009, Project ASSERT, with support from Boston Public Health Commission and Massachusetts Department of Public Health, also began offering overdose prevention education and naloxone rescue kits to emergency department patients at risk for opioid overdose.In order to evaluate the feasibility of this program and describe the overdose risk knowledge, opioid use, and overdose response actions among patients receiving overdose prevention education, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and BMC conducted a telephone survey of Project ASSERT patients between January 2011 and February 2012. Of the 415 patients who received overdose education during this time, 51 patients were surveyed. Of these 51 patients, 73 percent had received a naloxone rescue kit either in the emergency department or elsewhere, such as a detox facility, and approximately one third of the reported opioid use in the last 30 days.In addition, more than half had reported witnessing an overdose and calling 911 for help. Among those with naloxone rescue kits, about one-third administered naloxone during the rescue.“This study confirms that the emergency department provides a promising opportunity for opioid overdose harm reduction measures through overdose education and naloxone rescue kit distribution,” explained lead author Kristin Dwyer, MD, emergency physician at BMC. “Our program reached a high-risk population that commonly witnessed overdoses, called for help and used naloxone to rescue people, when available,” she added.Although the study was retrospective with a low response rate, the researchers believe this study provides useful information for planning larger studies and programs to further evaluate implementation, benefits and harms of overdose prevention efforts in EDs. Share on Facebook Emergency departments (ED) provide a promising venue to address opioid deaths with education on both overdose prevention and appropriate actions in a witnessed overdose. In addition, ED’s have the potential to equip patients with nasal naloxone rescue kits as part of this effort.These findings are from a study published in the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, and is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based opioid overdose prevention education and naloxone distribution to trained laypersons, patients and their social network.In the United States, deaths from prescription opioid overdose increased from 4,041 in 1999 to 16,651 in 2010. In 2011, an estimated 420,040 ED visits were related to overdose of prescription opioids and 258,482 heroin overdoses. LinkedIn Share on Twitter
Pinterest Share on Facebook Share LinkedIn Mass shootings have a significant impact on our individual and collective psyche, especially when they happen at schools. Despite the fact that children die every day from gun violence, school shootings upset us in ways that are difficult to comprehend. In our minds, schools serve as safe havens for children. When that image is shattered, the unpredictability and randomness of such heinous acts leave us wondering if anywhere is safe anymore. Thus, the shock and horror expressed following these events is not surprising.Unfortunately, our individual and communal response to such events is often knee-jerk. We react out of fear rather than thoughtful consideration of why such events occur and how our responses may prevent or accelerate re-occurrence. Without such understanding, we cannot develop effective solutions.The May issue of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry includes a set of commentaries that seek to help us better understand responses to gun violence, challenge some of the typical policy responses to such events, and offer constructive strategies for preventing gun violence. Email Share on Twitter In the first commentary, Kristin A. Goss (2015) highlights an exception to the old adage that when it comes to guns, legislators are incapable of action: at the federal and state levels, laws have been enacted that were designed to regulate access to guns by people with mental illness and to support programs to reduce gun violence within that population. Heath J. Hodges and Mario J. Scalora (2015) further challenge the presumption that mental illness is causally tied to gun violence. Building on existing research, Hodges and Scalora offer scientifically grounded and practical policy- and practice-oriented strategies for preventing firearm violence. They offer government solutions (e.g., basing prohibitions on dangerousness instead of mental illness and extending regulation of firearm acquisition to private transactions and Internet sales) and clinical interventions, such as employing threat assessment strategies.Dewey Cornell (2015) expounds upon the threat assessment strategy and provides a strong argument for the use of such an approach in schools. Cornell describes how the strategy of behavioral threat assessments – a process of evaluating individuals who threaten to harm others to determine whether their behavior demonstrates a serious intent to carry out a violent act – promotes the consideration of the context and meaning of the student’s behavior. Indeed, it re-focuses the conversation on creating supportive environments for children and youth.Carol W. Runyan, Talia Brown, and Ashley Brooks-Russell (2015) also draw attention to the need for more proactive and preventive approaches to gun violence. They discuss how the debate on gun violence resulting from mass shootings in schools frequently omits the role of firearms in suicide, despite the fact that mass shootings usually involve suicidal behaviors. After discussing the myths and biases that play into the inadequate attention afforded to suicide as a preventable public health issue, Runyan and colleagues propose a framework for the prevention of firearm suicides and call for greater recognition of behavioral health as part of health care.In the final commentary, David Hargrove and Roland Perdue (2015) argue that to address gun violence, we must address the fear and distrust that permeates society. Their commentary suggests that we need to invest in approaches that are preventive and that seek to build community, instead of policies and practices that further exclude and isolate individuals from communities.The editors and authors hope that this set of commentaries will provide a strong basis for having a well-reasoned conversation about our civic and moral obligation to ensure “a new normal” whereby neighbors look out for one another, institutions promote relationships and belonging, and resources are available to individuals during times of distress and isolation. Indeed, once we begin to address the fear that is guiding the development of misinformed policy and weakening connections among individuals and communities, we begin to chip away at the culture of violence in our society.
Email “People often think that biological sex differences start to arise only after puberty, but they actually start in the womb and persist until the tomb,” says Cengiz, paraphrasing a 1999 statement by the Institute of Medicine. “So, treatment approaches that may work for newborn boys may not work for girls, and vice versa. We need to get it right to develop effective therapies.”The protein is called estrogen receptor α, or ERα for short, and the researchers set out to learn how it confers its gender-specific protective effects.Their first clue lay with a particular drug known to protect female but not male newborn mice from the effects of brain injury caused by HIE. The drug works by turning on a cascade of protective effects in the brain in response to oxygen deprivation and reduced blood flow.The team learned that, like the drug, ERα also causes a similar cascade in infant mice and the protein is actually required for the drug to be effective. The researchers found that female mice lacking the ERα protein could not activate protective factors following HIE, even when treated with the drug.When the researchers studied the brains of male and female mice that could make the ERα protein, they learned that levels of this protective protein were significantly higher in female compared to male brains following oxygen deprivation and reduced blood flow.“Under normal circumstances the brains of male and female mice have similar amounts of ERα,” says Cengiz, who is now exploring why ERα levels increase in female but not male brains after HIE.Understanding the mechanism of how female brains are more resistant to damage from oxygen deprivation and reduced blood flow is a first step toward helping newborns of both sexes recover after suffering from HIE and live functional lives. It could also lead to more effective therapies and treatments for both genders, Cengiz says.But more work needs to be done. For one thing, Cengiz and her colleagues looked at only the hippocampus region of the brain, which is linked to memory and learning and is involved in other neurological roles. The hippocampus is also a site where new neurons are continually generated throughout the lifespan.“We focused on the hippocampus because we see memory and learning disabilities in many of the children affected by HIE,” says Cengiz, “and it is also the part of the brain that is most often injured after HIE.”While it could be years before human babies benefit, each molecular mystery researchers unravel provides a potential new road to developing new therapies, Cengiz says, noting: “We are driven by the desire to improve outcomes for all newborns who suffer brain injury from HIE.” Each year, thousands of newborn babies suffer complications during pregnancy or birth that deprive their brains of oxygen and nutrient-rich blood and result in brain injury. This deprivation results in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), which can lead to long-term neurological issues such as learning disabilities, cerebral palsy or even death.Researchers have known for some time that male infants are more vulnerable to HIE than females, but why this gender difference exists has remained a mystery.In a study published this week in the journal eNeuro, researchers at the Waisman Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, led by Pelin Cengiz, associate professor in the Department of Pediatrics, show that a particular protein found in the brains of both male and female mice is present at higher levels in females, which offers them stronger protection against this type of brain injury. Share LinkedIn Share on Twitter Pinterest Share on Facebook
Chemists at the University of California San Diego have designed a set of molecules that promote microscopic, anatomical changes in neurons associated with the formation and retention of memories. These drug candidates also prevent deterioration of the same neuronal structures in the presence of amyloid-beta, a protein fragment that accumulates in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.The study looked at the effect of drug candidates on the density of tiny thornlike structures called dendritic spines that bristle along the branching processes of neurons and receive incoming signals.“Problems with learning and memory in many neurodegenerative and neurodevelopment disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and certain forms of autism or mental retardation involve either loss or misregulation of dendritic spines,” said Jerry Yang, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry who led the work. “The compounds we have developed may offer the possibility to compensate, or ideally preserve, neuronal communication in people suffering from problems with memory.” Pinterest Share LinkedIn Email Share on Twitter Share on Facebook When the researchers treated neurons from a part of the brain critical to forming and retrieving memories with their new compounds they saw an increase in the density of dendritic spines. The new compounds also prevented the loss of these spines that occurs in the presence of amyloid-beta, the substance that forms amyloid plaques in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease, the team reports in a forthcoming issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.The greater the concentration of the drug candidate, the greater the density of spines within the range of doses the team tested. The effect is also reversible: once the compounds were washed away, the spines receded within 24 hours.Earlier versions of these compounds, also developed by Yang’s research group, improved memory and learning in normal mice and a mouse model for Alzheimer’s disease, but were too toxic to pursue as drug candidates.Jessica Cifelli, a graduate student in Yang’s group, worked out a way to keep the part of the molecules that they believe promoted the growth of dendritic spines, but alter the chemical features that impart toxicity. These novel compounds, called benzothiazole amphiphiles, are new tools to study relationship between dendritic spines and cognitive behavior.We know from a wealth of prior research that spine densities on neurons change over time and that increases in the densities correlate with improved memory and learning. As potential drugs, benzothiazole amphiphiles could be useful for combatting spine loss in neurodegenerative disease, or possibly for general cognitive enhancement.
LinkedIn Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Pinterest A study shows which psychological characteristics of some new mothers may affect how they use Facebook to show off their baby.The study looked at a specific group of moms – highly educated, mostly married Midwestern women who had full-time jobs – and found that those who felt societal pressure to be perfect moms and who identified most strongly with their motherhood role posted more frequently than others to Facebook.These same mothers who posted most frequently also reported stronger emotional reactions to comments on the photos they posted of their new baby – such as feeling bad if they didn’t get enough positive comments. Email Share While many new mothers are active on Facebook, these results suggest some seem to be more drawn to the site than others and may use it in less-than-healthy ways, said Sarah Schoppe-Sullivan, lead author of the study and professor of human sciences at The Ohio State University.“If a mother is posting on Facebook to get affirmation that she’s doing a good job and doesn’t get all the ‘likes’ and positive comments she expects, that could be a problem. She may end up feeling worse,” Schoppe-Sullivan said.In fact, those mothers who posted more on Facebook tended to report more depressive symptoms after nine months of parenthood than other moms.“The message of the study isn’t that Facebook is necessarily harmful- but that using Facebook may not be an effective platform for women to seek and gain external validation that they’re good moms,” said Jill Yavorsky, co-author of the study and a doctoral student in sociology at Ohio State.The study appears online this week in the journal Sex Roles.The researchers used data from the New Parents Project, a long-term study co-led by Schoppe-Sullivan that is investigating how dual-earner couples adjust to becoming parents for the first time. In all, 127 mothers from Ohio participated in this study.Because this sample includes mostly highly educated women from dual-career couples, the results may not hold for all new mothers, especially those who don’t work outside the home, Schoppe-Sullivan said.When the women were in their third trimester of pregnancy, the researchers measured how much they believed society expected them to be perfect parents. They were asked to rate how much they agreed with statements like “Only if I am a perfect parent will society consider me a good parent.”Nine months after the baby was born, the researchers measured how much the women in the study identified with their role as a mother. They rated how much they agreed with statements like “I know people make judgments about how good of a partner/mother I am based on how well cared for my house and family are.”The researchers also measured the frequency of their Facebook activity since their child was born, how often they uploaded photos of their children to Facebook and their emotional responses to Facebook friends’ comments and likes of child photos. For example, mothers were asked to rate on a 7-point scale from 1 (disappointed) to 7 (pleased) how they felt when photos of their child got more or fewer comments than they expected.Moms also reported how often they felt depressive symptoms at three and nine months after giving birth.The study showed that the new moms in the study nearly universally used Facebook to share about their child – 98 percent said they had uploaded photos of their infant. The average new mom reported a slight increase in Facebook use since her baby was born.The typical mom reported first uploading a photo of her infant to Facebook within one week of her child’s birth. And 80 percent of mothers who had ever uploaded a photo of their child reported that they had featured their child in their profile picture.Those mothers who did make their child’s image their own profile photos tended to show stronger identification with their mother role than women who didn’t.“What these mothers are saying is that my child is central to my identity, at least right now. That’s really telling,” Schoppe-Sullivan said.One of the key findings was how mothers who thought society expected them to be perfect and who identified strongly with their motherhood role reacted to Facebook posts, Yavorsky said.“These mothers paid close attention to the comments they got when they posted pictures of their baby. They felt validated when they got a lot of likes and comments, but they were also more likely to feel bad and disappointed when the reaction wasn’t what they had hoped,” Yavorsky said.These results aren’t surprising, she said. “The easiest way for women in our society to get validation is still through being a mother because other roles that women take on are still not as valued.”Added Schoppe-Sullivan: “These are not stay-at-home moms in our study. They have jobs outside the home that can also provide validation, which makes our results even more interesting. They have other successes to point to for validation.”Women in the study reported more depressive symptoms at nine months when they identified more with their role as mother and thought society expected them to be perfect, and thus posted more to Facebook.Schoppe-Sullivan said that result should be interpreted cautiously. She noted that the increase in depressive symptoms doesn’t necessarily indicate depression.But all mothers should be aware of why they are using Facebook.“It’s great to share stories and pictures of your baby, but relying on Facebook to feel good about your parenting may be risky,” Schoppe-Sullivan said.
Understanding of the physical root of depression has been advanced, thanks to research by the University of Warwick, UK, and Fudan University, China.The study shows that depression affects the part of the brain which is implicated in non-reward — the lateral orbitofrontal cortex — so that sufferers of the disease feel a sense of loss and disappointment associated with not receiving rewards.This area of the brain, which becomes active when rewards are not received, is also connected with the part of the brain which is involved in one’s sense of self, thus potentially leading to thoughts of personal loss and low self-esteem. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter LinkedIn Pinterest Email Share Depression is also associated with reduced connectivity between the reward brain area in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and memory systems in the brain, which could account for sufferers having a reduced focus on happy memories.These new discoveries could herald a breakthrough in treating depression, by going to the root cause of the illness, and helping depressed people to stop focussing on negative thoughts.The human medial (reward-related, OFC13) and lateral (non-reward-related, OFC47/12) orbitofrontal cortex networks that show different functional connectivity in patients with depression.The study has been carried out by Professor Edmund Rolls from Warwick, Professor Jianfeng Feng from Warwick and from Fudan University in Shanghai, Dr Wei Cheng from Fudan University, and by other centres in China.In a particularly large study, almost 1,000 people in China had their brains scanned using high precision MRI, which analysed the connections between the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex — the different parts of the human brain affected by depression.Professor Jianfeng Feng comments that depression is becoming increasingly prevalent:“More than one in ten people in their life time suffer from depression, a disease which is so common in modern society and we can even find the remains of Prozac (a depression drug) in the tap water in London.”“Our finding, with the combination of big data we collected around the world and our novel methods, enables us to locate the roots of depression which should open up new avenues for better therapeutic treatments in the near future for this horrible disease,” Professor Feng continues.Professor Edmund Rolls looks forward to the new treatments the research could lead to:“The new findings on how depression is related to different functional connectivities of the orbitofrontal cortex have implications for treatments in the light of a recent non-reward attractor theory of depression.”The research, ‘Medial reward and lateral non-reward orbitofrontal cortex circuits change in opposite directions in depression’, is published in Brain.
LinkedIn Share on Twitter The study from the University of Bristol comes on the back of public health warnings issued earlier this year by scientists who voiced concerns about the increased risk of psychosis for vulnerable people who use the drug. Those warnings followed evidence to suggest an increased use of particularly high potency strains of cannabis among young people. However, experts cautioned that the risks should not be overstated given the need for greater research into links between mental health and illicit drugs.This latest study from Bristol’s School of Experimental Psychology sheds fresh light on the issue, while still cautioning that the results ought to be considered in the wider context of other contributing factors of mental health.While some evidence was found to support hypotheses that cannabis use is a contributory factor in increasing the risk of schizophrenia, the researchers were surprised to find stronger evidence that the opposite was also likely. This adds weight to the idea that the drug may be used as a form of self-medication. Pinterest Email Share “The evidence suggested that schizophrenia risk predicts the likelihood of trying cannabis,” said Dr Suzi Gage, Research Associate with the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit. “However, the relationship could operate in both directions. Our results don’t really allow us to accurately predict the size of the effect – they’re more about providing evidence that the relationship is actually causal, rather than the result of confounding or common risk factors.”The study used Mendelian Randomization (MR) techniques to examine publicly available data from genome-wide association studies. MR is a form of instrumental variable analysis, using genetic variants that predict either cannabis use risk, or risk of developing schizophrenia.MR was used as an alternative to traditional observational epidemiology in an attempt to account for other variants that may affect the association, given that people who choose to use cannabis are likely to be different from those who don’t in lots of other ways.Dr Gage added: “Our results use a novel method to attempt to untangle the association between cannabis and schizophrenia. While we find stronger evidence that schizophrenia risk predicts cannabis use, rather than the other way round, it doesn’t rule out a causal risk of cannabis use on schizophrenia. What will be interesting is digging deeper in to the potential sub-populations of cannabis users who may be at greater risk, and getting a better handle on the impact of heavy cannabis use.“In this study we could only look at cannabis initiation. What would really help progress this research is to use genetic variants that predict heaviness of cannabis use, as it seems that heavy cannabis use is most strongly associated with risk of schizophrenia. Once genetic variants are identified that predict heaviness of cannabis use we’ll be able to do this.” Share on Facebook
Share Pinterest Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email Men who strongly believe that their manhood must be earned and can be lost exhibit more pronounced cortisol reactivity when their masculinity is threatened, according to research published in the journal Psychology of Men & Masculinities.The findings indicate that beliefs about masculinity can influence men’s physiological stress response and potentially their health.“Men have a shorter life expectancy than women; they tend to die about five years sooner. I am interested in trying to understand why that is,” said study author Mary S. Himmelstein, an assistant professor of psychological science at Kent State University. LinkedIn “I started researching how masculinity impacts men’s health while I was a graduate student. I started by focusing on how masculinity influenced barriers to healthcare seeking and doctor-patient communication.” “This project came out of a desire to understand whether there were physical mechanisms underlying the relationship between masculinity and health. The goal here was to understand how masculinity might ‘get under the skin’ to impact health via physical rather than behavioral mechanisms.”To examine this topic, the researchers had 212 male undergraduates give a speech about their ideal job while receiving feedback on their perceived masculinity via a computer monitor in real-time.Rather than receiving actual feedback related to their speech, however, the participants were randomly shown different patterns of masculinity ratings.The researchers also collected saliva samples from the participants before the speech, immediately following the speech, 10 minutes after the speech, and 20 minutes after the speech, which were used to measure cortisol levels.Himmelstein and her colleagues found that men who most strongly subscribed to precarious manhood beliefs tended to exhibit heightened cortisol reactivity in response to dropping masculinity feedback.In other words, participants who strongly agreed with statement such as “A man needs to prove his masculinity” had a stronger physiological stress response after seeing their masculinity score drop during their speech.“This study is based upon the tenants of precarious manhood theory, which says that 1) masculinity involves social status and 2) that masculine status can be easily lost when men display behavior inconsistent with masculine norms (for example, displaying weakness or vulnerability),” Himmelstein told PsyPost.“In plain English, it’s the idea that someone can ‘take away your man card’ if you display a behavior unbecoming of men (e.g., crying in public). We found that men who strongly buy into these ideas experience physical stress when they lose masculine status.”“Over time, this means men who constantly feel the need to prove themselves and demonstrate that they’re ‘tough’ or ‘macho’ are likely putting themselves at greater risk for chronic conditions that are influenced by stress (e.g., heart disease, stroke, heart attacks),” Himmelstein said.The heightened cortisol reactivity, however, was only present among those scoring in the top quartile on the measure of precarious manhood.“Our findings pertain only to individuals who strongly endorse the idea that masculine status can be lost. Other work suggests that these beliefs are also tied to risk-taking behavior and influence doctor-patient communication, both of which also negatively impact health over time,” Himmelstein explained.“There are likely multiple pathways (behavioral, cognitive, physiological) associated with these beliefs that put men’s health at risk. It is not yet understood how these beliefs change over time and how they affect men’s health over time.” “I think it’s important to change the narrative about seeking help among men. Admitting that you need help, especially for mental health issues, should be seen as a form of strength rather than weakness,” Himmelstein added.“It’s harder for men to speak up about intimate partner violence, sexual assault, anxiety, and depression, in part, because as a culture we shame men who experience these things. I’d like to see that change.”The study, “Stress in Strong Convictions: Precarious Manhood Beliefs Moderate Cortisol Reactivity to Masculinity Threats“, was authored by Mary S. Himmelstein, Brandon L. Kramer, and Kristen W. Springer.