Alex Hogan/STAT The field, in short, seems ripe for revolution. But entrepreneurs entering the market also face risks. Drug-delivery systems are quicker to bring to market than traditional pharmaceuticals — but don’t make as much money. Valuations stay modest. Very few drug-delivery companies, among them BIND Therapeutics and Cerulean Pharma, have gone public.And new drug-delivery technologies could pose risks to patients. Nanomaterials have been heralded for their potential in delivering drugs to spinal cord injuries and tumors, but a review published this year called for further investigation of the material’s potential toxic effects. And while 3-D printing has sparked excitement about the potential for patients to get their pills in the shape that works best for them, a study published last year found that changes in the size and shape of pills can lead to patients skipping doses. Related: Precision medicine, linked to DNA, still too often misses Device uses ultrasound to deliver drugs In the LabNot your grandma’s pills: 7 intriguing new ways to deliver drugs Related: Implanted devicesThe problem: Pills can be forgotten, misplaced, stolen, sold on the black market, or gobbled up by kids.Potential solution: A device implanted under the skin, tested in patients with opioid addiction, dispenses medication for six months.Who’s working on it: Titan Pharmaceuticals, a San Francisco specialty pharma companyAlex Hogan/STATRemote-controlled deliveryThe problem: Drugs for neurological disorders often have terrible side effects.Potential solution: A remote-controlled device, tested in mice, would be implanted in the brain to precisely deliver drugs to specific regions of the brain that need it, bypassing regions that don’t.Who’s working on it: Researchers at Washington University in St. Louis; University of Colorado, Boulder; and University of Illinois, Urbana-ChampaignAlex Hogan/STATMicroneedle patchThe problem: Medical professionals aren’t always around.Potential solution: An experimental microneedle patch, tested in patients, would deliver a flu vaccine without the need for needles or trained technicians.Who’s working on it: Researchers at Osaka University in JapanAlex Hogan/STATCell squeezingThe problem: It can be hard to get drugs into a cell.Potential solution: An experimental device, tested in mice, squeezes cells like a sponge, opening up tiny pores in the cell’s exterior membrane through which foreign molecules can flow.Who’s working on it: SQZ Biotech, a Boston startupAlex Hogan/STATTumor implantThe problem: Testing one oncology drug at a time on a tumor takes too long and can have toxic effects.Potential solution: A tiny device, being tested in breast cancer patients, could be implanted into a tumor to dispense small doses of up to 30 different drugs at a time.Who’s working on it: Researchers at MITAlex Hogan/STATMany of the new technologies are still being fine-tuned in academic labs or tested in animals. But money is flowing in, particularly for concepts that are closer to market. Last year, investment in drug-delivery companies exceeded $250 million, according to the financial information firm Dow Jones. And the worldwide market for drug-delivery technologies is expected to exceed $150 billion this year, according to the London research firm Visiongain. Big Pharma is taking notice, too: Roche this week partnered with startup SQZ Biotech to find new uses for technology the startup developed to push drugs into cells. Teva Pharmaceuticals earlier this year inked its own partnership with drug delivery company Microchips Biotech. And Allergan last year acquired the drug-delivery technology of another startup, TARIS Biomedical.The reason for all this interest? There’s a lot that isn’t working with today’s drug-delivery systems.Injections can be painful and inconvenient. Steroids and chemotherapy can have side effects. Daily pills are easily abused or difficult to remember to take, particularly for patients with cognitive conditions like Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia.And then there’s the issue of targeting. Sometimes drugs can’t penetrate the thick membranes of the organs they’re trying to reach; other times they act on the wrong places, needlessly impairing cognition or causing liver or kidney damage. An expanding ringThe problem: Stomach drugs that are supposed to be long-acting get flushed out too quickly.Potential solution: A swallowable pill, tested in pigs, unfolds into a ring when it reaches the stomach, allowing it to dispense medication for longer than a week.Who’s working on it: Lyndra, a Cambridge biotech startupAlex Hogan/STAT3-D printingThe problem: Some patients need drugs dispensed in different amounts, at different speeds, or to different regions.Potential solution: A 3-D printing technology, tested in vitro, could customize dosages with unusually shaped pills or designs that pack multiple drugs into one pill.Who’s working on it: Researchers at University College London’s School of Pharmacyadvertisement By Rebecca Robbins Dec. 8, 2015 Reprints The quest to develop the next miracle pill commands the biggest bucks and the most attention in biotech. But out of the spotlight, there’s growing interest in finding better ways to deliver existing drugs into the body.Academic researchers and startups are working on new technologies that sound fantastical: Microbubbles. Pills shaped like donuts and pyramids. Devices that could “turn on” drugs, like a TV remote, by flashing beams of light. Tiny chips that might be able to stay in your body for as long as 16 years.We’ve rounded up some of the most intriguing ideas in the field of drug delivery. Here’s just a sampling of those efforts:advertisement Tags biotechdrug deliverydrugs
Electric Picnic organisers release statement following confirmation of new festival date News Revenue have contacted around 3,000 taxpayers who they say have been the victims of ‘fraudulent texts’.There is an ongoing circulation of a number of ‘scam’ text messages, purporting to come from Revenue, that contain a link to a fraudulent website which seek personal information from taxpayers.These texts do not come from Revenue, they are in fact from fraudsters.As a result of information provided by them as part of a recent scam, personal details held in the user profile of their Revenue myAccount may have been accessed by the fraudsters.Revenue’s Chief Information Officer, John Barron, said: “Revenue constantly monitors for suspect online activity on all its services and takes action as soon as such activity comes to light.“For example, where potential phishing websites are detected, we immediately seek to have them taken offline by reputable hosting services.“Following an investigation by Revenue’s IT Department into this latest scam, we are contacting approximately 3,000 taxpayers to make them aware of our concerns that their personal details may have been accessed, the possible serious implications for them and to set out some practical things they can do to minimise the extent of any fraud perpetrated against them.“It is important to note that the security of Revenue’s systems has not been compromised in any way. TAGSRevenue RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Pinterest WhatsApp “However, the nature of this particular type of scam has led to some taxpayers unwittingly compromising the security of their personal myAccount profile details by providing information such as their PPSN, Date of Birth and myAccount password to fraudsters.“This occurred after the taxpayer clicked on a link, in a text sent by fraudsters, which purported to be the Revenue ‘myAccount’ log-in screen.“If the details provided after clicking the link are valid, the fraudsters then use these details provided by the taxpayer to access the taxpayer’s myAccount user profile screen.“At this stage they may be able to obtain further information including potentially bank details where the taxpayer has recorded these with Revenue.“In order to mitigate any further threat to the accounts that could have been potentially compromised, we are now contacting each of the taxpayers by letter informing them of possible fraudulent activity that may have affected their account.The letter notifies the taxpayer that Revenue has temporarily deactivated their myAccount access and advises them of important next steps they should follow.”SEE ALSO – Minister Flanagan steps in to block ‘family visit’ for Laois man who murdered Carlow mother Twitter Electric Picnic WhatsApp Pinterest Facebook Facebook Bizarre situation as Ben Brennan breaks up Fianna Fáil-Fine Gael arrangement to take Graiguecullen-Portarlington vice-chair role Twitter Revenue contacts taxpayers who have been the target of fraudulent texts By Alan Hartnett – 29th May 2020 Electric Picnic Laois Councillor ‘amazed’ at Electric Picnic decision to apply for later date for 2021 festival Home News Revenue contacts taxpayers who have been the target of fraudulent texts News Previous articleDeaths in Laois – Friday, May 29, 2020Next articleWATCH: Laois students record stunning rendition of ‘Wicked’ classic to celebrate finishing school Alan HartnettStradbally native Alan Hartnett is a graduate of Knockbeg College who has worked in the local and national media since 2008. Alan has a BA in Economics, Politics and Law and an MA in Journalism from DCU. His happiest moment was when Jody Dillon scored THAT goal in the Laois senior football final in 2016.
Community Pharmacy in Health Care Homes Trial Program coming to an end The Australian Government has confirmed that the Community Pharmacy in Health Care Homes Trial Program will end on 30 June 2021 in line with the ending of the broader Health Care Homes Trial.The Community Pharmacy in Health Care Homes Trial Program is funded by the Australian Government under the Sixth Community Pharmacy Agreement (6CPA) as part of a package of measures to support new and expanded 6CPA Community Pharmacy Programs including incorporation of medication management programs within Health Care Homes.Health Care Homes are general practices or Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services that provide better coordinated and more flexible care for Australians with chronic and complex health conditions. The Health Care Homes model was designed to help Australians better manage their conditions by giving them access to coordinated, integrated care, tailored to their needs.Through the community pharmacy trial patients have benefited from patient-centred, coordinated medication management services delivered by their community pharmacy of choice in conjunction with their Health Care Home.The Guild thanks all community pharmacies that have participated in this significant trial with the goal of improving the health outcomes of people with complex and chronic conditions in Australia.After the trial ends on 30 June 2021, the trial outcomes will be evaluated and a final report will be published on the Australian Government Department of Health’s website. Further information on the community pharmacy trial is available on the trial website. /Public Release. This material comes from the originating organization and may be of a point-in-time nature, edited for clarity, style and length. View in full here. Why?Well, unlike many news organisations, we have no sponsors, no corporate or ideological interests. We don’t put up a paywall – we believe in free access to information of public interest. Media ownership in Australia is one of the most concentrated in the world (Learn more). Since the trend of consolidation is and has historically been upward, fewer and fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media in our country. According to independent assessment, about 98% of the media sector is held by three conglomerates. This tendency is not only totally unacceptable, but also to a degree frightening). Learn more hereWe endeavour to provide the community with real-time access to true unfiltered news firsthand from primary sources. It is a bumpy road with all sorties of difficulties. We can only achieve this goal together. Our website is open to any citizen journalists and organizations who want to contribute, publish high-quality insights or send media releases to improve public access to impartial information. You and we have the right to know, learn, read, hear what and how we deem appropriate.Your support is greatly appreciated. All donations are kept completely private and confidential.Thank you in advance!Tags:Aboriginal, agreement, Australia, Australian, Australian Government, chronic, community, Department of Health, general practice, Government, health, health services, outcomes, pharmacy, Pharmacy Guild of Australia, trial, website
Jamaican Items on Display at British Museum Foreign AffairsAugust 24, 2010 Advertisements RelatedJamaican Items on Display at British Museum RelatedJamaican Items on Display at British Museum FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail An early version of the Jamaican Bongo Drum is the featured item at the entrance of the exhibition, ‘A history of the World in 100 Objects’, at the British Museum in London.The drum is titled ‘Akan’, as it was originally from the Akan people of Central Ghana. It is exhibited as a foundation of western hemisphere music with photographs of Bob Marley, Jimmy Cliff and others.This exhibition is being staged in association with the BBC Radio 4, which broadcasts 100 15-minute programmes about each of the items on display and explores their contribution to the development of the world over time.The Akan Drum was donated to the museum by the famous physician and botanist, Sir Hans Sloane. It is this week’s featured object and is depicted within the context of its contribution to the development of western popular music. Among the images adorning the display are those of Jamaica’s most popular singers, Bob Marley and Jimmy Cliff, alongside American greats, such as Billie Holliday, Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong and Missy Elliot.The display charts the role of the drums in Afro-centric music, looking at its traditional use as an instrument of rites in the Akan region of Western Africa to its arrival in America and dominant use in music forms such as jazz, reggae and hip hop.This drum on display was found in Virginia in the United States and was originally thought to be an Amerindian instrument. Researchers found that it came from Africa.Sir Hans Sloane lived and worked in Spanish Town, Jamaica for 15 months from 1687 to 1688. He was physician to the Governor, the Duke of Albermarle. During his 15- month stay he took an interest in slave culture and transcribed music from slave performances, which included drumming.As a botanist, he noted more than 800 new species of plants, many of which he brought back to Britain and used for medicinal purposes and also to establish the Chelsea Physic Garden.Many of his original collections, including weeds and roots brought from Jamaica, form part of the current display at the British Museum.Jamaican High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, His Excellency Anthony Johnson was given a tour of the exhibition last Thursday, August 19. He was shown the wide and varied items collected by Sloane during his time in Jamaica, including replicas of the yellow snake, mongoose and rat from the early sugar plantations. Artefacts from the Tainos (Arawaks) were also on display as well as items related to the development of drinking chocolate, about which Sloane learnt when he was in Jamaica.High Commissioner Johnson said the display highlighted the extent to which Jamaican items have played a crucial role in the development of medicine, botany and other fields.“The relationship between Sir Hans Sloane and Jamaica is very interesting. The British Museum and the Chelsea Physic Garden are celebrating the 350th anniversary of his birth. Jamaica figures prominently in all the activities because of the impact that his time in Jamaica had on his life and career. In addition to the display at the museum, the botanical garden has developed a special Jamaica plot on the bank of the River Thames where they grow bananas, yam, mangoes, cocoa, among other Jamaican crops. While these will perhaps only last the summer, it is important to understand the tremendous value that has been placed on Jamaican produce over the years,” he said.A ‘History of the World’, told through 100 objects, charts the history of the world from two million years ago to the present. The radio programmes are broadcast on BBC Radio 4 with an omnibus edition on the BBC World Service and are also available online. RelatedJamaican Items on Display at British Museum
5Ginfrastructure Author Related Previous ArticleTikTok poised to expand e-commerce playNext ArticleAIS forecasts slow mobile recovery in 2021 Tags Nokia scores Philippines 5G deal with Dito AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to MoreAddThisMore8 08 FEB 2021 Former Google CEO Eric Schmidt warned the US could lose out on the economic benefits of 5G leadership if politicians do not take urgent action to boost network infrastructure deployments in the country.In an opinion article for Financial Times, Schmidt argued the high cost of the country’s record-breaking C-Band (3.7GHz to 4.2GHz) auction was a “digital setback that America and its allies can ill-afford”, and urged Congress to implement “aggressive, innovative strategies” to speed rollouts of next-generation infrastructure.Specifically, he called on politicians to distribute proceeds from the auction to states to help fund network expansion; incorporate network construction requirements for winning bidders in future auctions; and explore other ways to incentivise rapid rollouts, including through spectrum sharing agreements.“Investing in 5G mobile telecommunications networks should be an urgent priority of the US and its allies, particularly as the main geostrategic rival, China, is already far ahead.”US telecom industry groups and politicians previously stressed the need to beat China in the race to deploy 5G, but focused their efforts on freeing more spectrum for operators.Schmidt’s comments on the auction echoed warnings from analysts last month that excessive spectrum costs could slow 5G deployments and raise service costs for consumers. Subscribe to our daily newsletter Back Telkomsel turns on 5G in major cities Diana is Mobile World Live’s US Editor, reporting on infrastructure and spectrum rollouts, regulatory issues, and other carrier news from the US market. Diana came to GSMA from her former role as Editor of Wireless Week and CED Magazine, digital-only… Read more Home Former Google CEO urges US action on 5G infrastructure Asia Mobile Mix: Buzzing for Barcelona Diana Goovaerts
Intelligent Design The Nylonase Story: How Unusual Is That?Ann GaugerMay 5, 2017, 2:44 AM Jane Goodall Meets the God Hypothesis A Physician Describes How Behe Changed His MindLife’s Origin — A “Mystery” Made AccessibleCodes Are Not Products of PhysicsIxnay on the Ambriancay PlosionexhayDesign Triangulation: My Thanksgiving Gift to All Congratulations to Science Magazine for an Honest Portrayal of Darwin’s Descent of Man “A Summary of the Evidence for Intelligent Design”: The Study Guide Requesting a (Partial) Retraction from Darrel Falk and BioLogos Ann GaugerSenior Fellow, Center for Science and CultureDr. Ann Gauger is Director of Science Communication and a Senior Fellow at the Discovery Institute Center for Science and Culture, and Senior Research Scientist at the Biologic Institute in Seattle, Washington. She received her Bachelor’s degree from MIT and her Ph.D. from the University of Washington Department of Zoology. She held a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University, where her work was on the molecular motor kinesin.Follow AnnProfile Share Evolution Editor’s note: Nylon is a modern synthetic product used in the manufacturing, most familiarly, of ladies’ stockings but also a range of other goods, from rope to parachutes to auto tires. Nylonase is a popular evolutionary icon, brandished by theistic evolutionist Dennis Venema among others. In a series of three posts, of which this is the second, Discovery Institute biologist Ann Gauger takes a closer look.In an article yesterday, “The Nylonase Story: When Imagination and Facts Collide,” I described how some biologists claim that the enzyme nylonase demonstrates that it is easy to get new functional proteins. It has been proposed that nylonase is the result of a frameshift mutation that produced an entirely new coding sequence from an alternate reading frame. I showed why such a claim is false. Now I will explain what that means and something about the unusual properties of the nylB gene that caught molecular geneticist and evolutionary biologist Susumu Ohno’s attention.What are alternate reading frames? To answer that question, I first need to provide some background information. I will begin by defining some terms I used in yesterday’s post. DNA is composed of two anti-parallel strands of nucleotides. The order of the nucleotides in each strand is what specifies the information the DNA carries. The two strands, called the sense and antisense strands, run in opposite directions. Even though their sequences are complementary, with A always paired with T, and C with G, each strand carries different potential information.ATG GCA TGC ACC GGC ATT AG → senseTAC CGT ACG TGG CCG TAA TC ← antisenseBefore the information in DNA can be used, it must be copied into what we call messenger RNA. The sequence of one strand of DNA, usually the sense strand, is copied using the same base complementarity: G pairs with C, and A with U (U is used in place of T in RNA). We call that copying transcription. The message that has been transcribed from the DNA into that sequence of RNA is now ready to be translated into protein.Notice the language of information shot throughout these processes. The names for these processes were given by men fully committed to a naturalistic worldview, men such as Francis Crick and Sydney Brenner. Indeed, they were materialists one and all. Yet they saw the parallels between these processes and the human manipulation of text (language) or code (another form of language). The genetic code is the framework that determines the relationship between groups of nucleotides (codons), and the amino acids they specify. The code specifies how to translate the messenger RNA that has been copied or transcribed from the DNA, so that it can be translated into a new language, the language of proteins. Below is an illustration of the standard genetic code (source here, used with permission):Notice that the information in DNA is read in groups of three nucleotides (each group is called a codon), and each codon specifies a particular amino acid. Sometimes more than one codon can specify the same amino acid. For example in the top left corner, the table shows that UUU and UUC both specify the amino acid phenylalanine.The nature of the code is such that it matters where the first codon begins — the first codon to be read establishes the codon groupings going forward. In the table above the “start” codon is AUG (it also specifies the amino acid methionine). The sequence of codons is “read” by a cellular machine called the ribosome, which starts reading the RNA message at AUG, and then proceeds three nucleotides at a time to translate the message into amino acids. In the sequence below, for example, the first codon to be read would be AUG and that codon determines the frame in which of all the other codons are read.AUG GCA UGC ACC GGC AUU AGUNow here’s where it gets interesting. Potentially, DNA can be grouped into different codons, or frames, depending on where the ribosome starts reading. See below for an illustration. For example, the sequence could potentially be read with the groupings shown in frame one (ATG GCA etc.) or frame two (TGG CAT etc., if a proper ATG exists somewhere upstream), leading ultimately to a different amino acid sequences for each. In fact there are six possible ways to group the DNA into codons — three frames on the sense strand going left to right (labeled 1-3), and three frames on the antisense strand (labeled 4-6), going right to left. Below I have laid out the six possible frames for the sequence we began with, but with the alternate frames staggered, and the alternate codons separated by spaces. Notice the sequence stays the same — the only thing that changes from frame to frame is how the nucleotides are grouped. It’s the same sequence, but it could be read and translated differently in each frame. This is because each codon specifies a particular amino acid. Thus, each frame results in a completely different string of amino acids.frame 1 ATG GCA TGC ACC GGC ATT AGframe 2 TGG CAT GCA CCG GCA TTA Gframe 3 GGC ATG CAC CGG CAT TAGframe 4 TAC CGT ACG TGG CCG TAA TCframe 5 ACC GTA CGT GGC CGT AAT Cframe 6 CCG TAC GTG GCC GTA ATCThe codons TAA, TAG, and TGA are stop codons — they specify where the gene ends and protein translation stops. (For extra credit, can you find any ATG or stop codons in the above frames? They are there in both the forward and reverse direction. For more extra credit, can you use the code table to translate different frames, and demonstrate that each frame encodes a different protein?)So when Venema and others say that nylonase arose by a frameshift mutation that produced a novel protein 392 amino acids long, they are claiming that a completely new coding sequence with frame-shifted codons could generate a functional protein. How likely is that? Not very, given the rarity of functional proteins in sequence space (see my first post). And, as I have already shown in my first post, such an unlikely hypothesis is unnecessary. The nylB gene appears to be the product of a simple gene duplication followed by two stepwise mutations to increase nylonase activity.There is something special about the nylonase gene’s sequence though, something very odd. nylB has multiple large, overlapping (alternate) open frames that lack stop codons.How hard is it to get a gene with multiple reading frames?Let me explain. Roughly one in twenty codons are stop codons. A random DNA sequence will have stop codons about every sixty bases, and may or may not have a start codon. Usually the alternate frames of DNA sequences are interrupted by stop codons. Only the frame that actually specifies the correct gene will have no stop codons at all over a significant length. This system is actually very ingenious. The one frame that needs to be read and translated is identified by an ATG. The other frames will usually lack an ATG and/or will have several stop codons that interrupt their translation, thus preventing the cell from wasting energy on nonsense transcripts.According to the nylonase story, as told by Ohno and Venema and numerous others, a new ATG start codon was formed by the insertion of a T between an A and G, thus creating a new start codon after the original ATG, which shifted the reading frame for that sequence to that specified by the new ATG, and creating a completely different coding sequence and thus a new protein. Let us grant that scenario for the sake of argument. Normally such a shift would produce a new coding sequence that would be interrupted by stop codons, so the newly frameshifted protein would be truncated. Thus the only reason this frameshift hypothesis for nylonase is even remotely possible is because the sequence coding for nylonase is most unusual, and contains not one, not two, but three open frames Although frameshift mutations are ordinarily considered to be quite disruptive, at least in this case the putative brand new protein sequence would not terminate early due to stop codons.My point? The first step to getting a new functional protein of any length from a frameshift is to avoid stop codons. The odds of a random coding sequence having an open alternate frame, without stops, are poor. As a consequence, if a protein does have an open frame in addition to its coding sequence, it’s worth paying attention to. And it so happens that nylonase does have more than one open frame. The DNA sequence above illustrates the six frames, numbering them frames 1 through 6. Using that convention, frames 1 and 3 are read from the sense strand. Both have no stop codons over the length of the gene in the sense direction. Frame 4 on the antisense direction has no stop codons either. Frame 1 is the coding frame that specifies the nylonase protein, otherwise known as the open reading frame (ORF). It is defined by the presence of both a start and stop codon. The other two frames have no start codons or stop codons, so I’ll call them non-stop frames (NSFs). They are frames 3 and 4.The probability of a DNA sequence with an ORF on the sense strand and 2 NSFs is very small. Just exactly how small are the chances of avoiding a stop codon in three out of six frames? We set out to determine that by performing a numerical simulation using pseudorandom numbers to generate sequences at various levels of GC content. (By we I mean that my husband, Patrick Achey, who is an actuary, did the programming work, while I determined the parameters.) We chose to vary the GC content because sequences with a higher GC content have fewer stop codons. Remember, a stop codon always has an A and a T (TAA, TAG, and TGA are the stop codons) so having a sequence with a lower percentage of AT content will reduce the frequency of stop codons. Conversely, higher GC content makes the chances of avoiding stop codons and getting longer ORFs much greater, thus also increasing the chances of NSFs. The genomes of bacteria vary in their GC content, from less than 20 percent to as much as 75 percent, though the reason why is not known. One species of Flavobacterium has a genome with about 32 percent GC and 2400 genes — the precise values varies with the strain. The plasmid on which nylB resides is very different. It has 65 percent GC content. The gene encoding nylonase has an even higher 70 percent GC content, which is near the observed bacterial maximum of 75 percent.We chose to use a target ORF size of 900 nucleotides (or 300 amino acids) because it is an average size for a functional protein. Nylonase is 392 amino acids long; the small domain of beta lactamase, the enzyme my colleague Doug Axe studied, is about 150 amino acids long. The median length for an E. coli protein is 278 amino acids; for humans, the median length is 375.As expected, the simulation showed that the higher the GC content, the greater the likelihood that ORFs that are 900+ nucleotides long exist. At 50 percent GC, the average ORF length we obtained was about 60 nucleotides; most ORFs terminate well before 900 nucleotides. Indeed, in our simulation only two out of a million random sequences made it to 900 nucleotides before encountering a stop codon. As a result, we could not determine the rarity of NSFs at 50 percent GC — we would probably have to run the simulation for more than a billion trials to get any significant number of NSFs at all.Sequences at 60 percent GC gave 57 ORFs at least 900 nucleotides long out of a million trials, while sequences at 65 percent GC produced 404 out of a million, one of which also had an NSF.NSFs were much more probable for sequences that were 70 percent GC, like nylB. In our simulation 3,021 out of a million trials were ORFs at least 900 nucleotides long. That’s a frequency of .3 percent. Of those 3,021 ORFs, 86 had 1 NSF, and none had 2 NSFs. We had to run 10 million trials at 70 percent GC to see any ORFs with 2 NSFs. From those 10 million randomly generated sequences, we obtained 28,603 ORFs; 903 had 1 NSF and only 9 had 2 NSFs.Interestingly, at 80 percent GC we got a few sequences with 4 NSFs; but I don’t know of any bacterium with a GC content that high.Our simulation shows that multiple NSFs are very rare. The probability that an ORF 900 nucleotides long with 70 percent GC content will have two NSFs is 9 out of 28,603, or 0.0003. If these figures are recast to include the total number of trials required to get an ORF of that length and GC content and with 2 NSFs, the probability would be 9 out of 10,000,000 trials.A sequence like nylB is very rare. In fact, I suspect that for all cases where overlapping genes exist, in other words where alternate frames from the same sequence have the potential to code for different proteins, unusual sequence will necessarily be found. Likely it will be high in GC content. Could such rare sequences be accidental? I think that if we compare the expected number of alternate or overlapping NSFs per ORF, with the actual number we will find that there are more of these alternate open reading frames than would be predicted by chance.From another study of overlapping genes:Thus, bacterial genomes contain a larger number of long shadow ORFs [ORFs on alternate frames] than expected based on statistical analysis. Random mutational drift would have eliminated the signal long ago, if no selection pressures were stabilizing shadow ORFs. Deviations between the statistical model and bacterial genomes directly call for a functional explanation, since selection is the only force known to stabilize the depletion of stop codons. Most shadow genes have escaped discovery, as they are dismissed as false positives in most genome annotation programs. This is in sharp contrast to many embedded overlapping genes that have been discovered in bacteriophages. Since phages reside in a long term evolutionary equilibrium with the bacterial host genome, we suggest that overlooked shadow genes also exist in bacterial genomes.Indeed, a study of the pOAD2 plasmid from which nylB came indicates that there are potentially many overlapping genes on that plasmid. nylB′, for example, a homologous gene on the same plasmid that differs by 47 amino acids from nylB, also has 2 NSFs. These unusual and unexpected features of DNA have consequences for how we think about the origin of information in DNA sequences, as I shall discuss in the next post.Monday: “The Nylonase Story: The Information Enigma.”Photo: Nylon tire, 1967 AMC Marlin, by Christopher Ziemnowicz (Own work) [CC BY-SA 2.5, Public domain or CC BY-SA 2.5], via Wikimedia Commons. Origin of Life: Brian Miller Distills a Debate Between Dave Farina and James Tour Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share Recommended Tagsamino acidscodonDennis VenemaDNAintelligent designnylonnylonaseopen reading framereading frameRNAsense and antisenseSusumu Ohno,Trending
Image: Heart of the Milky Way, by X-Ray:NASA/CXC/UMass/D. Wang et al.; Radio:NRF/SARAO/MeerKAT. Intelligent Design Metaphysical Tolerance: A Discipline for Progress Walter BradleyCharles ThaxtonRoger E. OlsenMarch 25, 2020, 5:59 AM We cannot imagine that the cause of truth is served by keeping unpopular or minority ideas under wraps… Specious arguments can be exposed only by examining them. Nothing is so unscientific as the inquisition mentality that served, as it thought, the truth, by seeking to suppress or conceal dissent rather than by grappling with it. We believe both sides of the origins issue (i.e., representatives of both metaphysical positions) must be considered, precisely because there is no way to test origins ideas in origin science against recurring phenomena (origins by definition do not recur). The issue will be decided on the basis of plausibility, not falsifiability. There is good historical precedent for this approach. Charles Darwin in his introduction to The Origin of Species said: There are sensitive issues involved when we begin to explore the metaphysical questions surrounding the origin of life. However, there is no easy way to resolve these issues. The only sure path is difficult. It demands the discipline required to temporarily table our personal tastes and preferences and humble ourselves in order to give serious consideration to how the data can be viewed from the other metaphysical position. We must do so recognizing that the truth of origins surely remains the truth regardless of which metaphysical position we individually adopt. As Melvin Calvin has observed, “The true student will seek evidence to establish fact rather than confirm his own concept of truth, for truth exists whether it is discovered or not.” The Modern Scientific Tradition Walter BradleyFellow, Center for Science and CultureWalter L. Bradley received his B.S. degree in Engineering Science (Physics) in 1965 and his Ph.D. in Materials Science and Engineering in 1968, both from the University of Texas (Austin). He subsequently taught at the Colorado School of Mines, Texas A&M University as Full Professor of Mechanical Engineering, and for 10 years at Baylor University as a Distinguished Professor. His research area has been Materials Science and Engineering, with a focus on the mechanical properties of plastics and polymeric (plastic) composite materials, fracture and life prediction. He has received more than $7 million in research funding and published more than 150 refereed technical papers and book chapters. He has been honored by the American Society for Materials and the Society of Plastics Engineers as Educator of the Year. His most recent work has focused on converting agricultural waste into functional fillers for engineering plastics to provide new economic opportunities for poor farmers in developing countries. Charles ThaxtonFellow, Center for Science and CultureCharles Thaxton received his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Iowa State University. He completed two post-doctoral programs, one in history of science at Harvard University and the second in the molecular biology laboratories of Brandeis University. He has specialized in the origin of life and in science’s relationship with Christianity through history.Follow CharlesProfileRoger L. OlsenRoger L. Olsen is a Senior Vice President in the Denver office of the global consulting, engineering, and construction firm CDM Smith Inc. He received his BS in Chemistry and PhD in Geochemistry from the Colorado School of Mines. He is a Board Certified Environmental Scientist by the American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists, one of the first twenty scientists to be so certified. He has served as an Instructor at the Colorado School of Mines, a Research Chemist at Rockwell International, and a Project Geochemist at D’Appolonia Consulting Engineers/International Technology Corporation. He is author of dozens of published scientific papers and routinely makes presentations at scientific and engineering conferences around the world. He is an internationally recognized expert in the fields of geochemistry and environmental chemistry and has testified as an expert witness. Share Theism and Naturalism The Quest for Truth Evolution Our own position and why we hold it; The weaknesses and disadvantages of our position; The need for tolerance of others’ positions; The limitations of science. When we are asked to consider “far out” or “strange” ideas such as Special Creation, as were the authors just a few years ago, typically the response is exactly that mentioned by David Bohm as cited earlier: “His first reaction is often of violent disturbance.” This was our reaction, too. However, as Bohm goes on to say, if one is willing to “stick with the inquiry rather than escape into anger or unjustified rejection of contrary ideas… he becomes aware of the assumptive character of a great many previously unquestioned features of his own thinking.” To be sure, not everyone who goes into the matter will reach the conclusion that we have. Even so, in the words of Davis and Solomon, as expressed in their book World of Biology: Jane Goodall Meets the God Hypothesis A Physician Describes How Behe Changed His MindLife’s Origin — A “Mystery” Made AccessibleCodes Are Not Products of PhysicsIxnay on the Ambriancay PlosionexhayDesign Triangulation: My Thanksgiving Gift to All Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share TagsCharles DarwinCharles ThaxtonDavid BohmDiscovery Institute PresshypothesesMelvin Calvinmetaphysicsnaturalismpositivismsciencescientistsspecial creationThe Mystery of Life’s OriginThe Origin of Speciestheismtolerance,Trending For I am well aware that scarcely a single point is discussed in this volume on which facts cannot be adduced, often apparently leading to conclusions directly opposite to those at which I have arrived. A fair result can be obtained only by fully stating and balancing the facts and arguments on both sides of each question, and this is here impossible. [Emphasis added.] Read the rest in The Mystery of Life’s Origin: The Continuing Controversy, from Discovery Institute Press. Congratulations to Science Magazine for an Honest Portrayal of Darwin’s Descent of Man Editor’s note: As an alternative to what you are getting pretty much everywhere else in the media at the moment, Evolution News is proud to offer inspiration, pointing to purpose and meaning in life. The profoundest mystery and thus the deepest inspiration is life itself. Discovery Institute Press has just published a greatly expanded edition of the 1984 classic of intelligent design science literature, The Mystery of Life’s Origin. Below is an excerpt adapted from the “controversial” Epilogue. Listen to a conversation with co-author Charles Thaxton about the chapter here. The difficulty in pursuing these metaphysical matters is that scientists on the whole have seen so little value in this pursuit. After the birth of modern science in the 17th century it became increasingly common, and by the end of the 19th century the accepted procedure, to separate science and metaphysics into isolated, thought-tight compartments. This seemed to work well in practice, for after science got started the practitioners of science could function without even being aware of the metaphysical basis on which they operated. The modern scientific tradition has largely developed within the area we have called operation science, with its emphasis on recurring phenomena and testable hypotheses. Because of the inertia of heritage, the practice of science continued with only a few practicing scientists apparently aware of its metaphysical basis. As a result, now that we need to negotiate metaphysical terrain for proper understanding of origin science, few in science are equipped with the requisite skills. We believe this is a major reason creation in the area of origin science is viewed with such deep suspicion by many and frequently simply dismissed. Recommended Our purpose in this epilogue has been to shed light on the issues and to avoid heat as much as possible. Only the reader can judge how successful we have been. If there is but one thing our acquaintance with the history of science has taught us, it is that unless some progress is made in recognizing the role of metaphysical thinking and properly using it, the origins debate will simply rage on, much as it has in the past, with representatives of each side of the dispute failing to hear or understand the other. Consequently, such scientists who go along blithely oblivious to the role of metaphysical thinking will simply act as if data really are observed and comprehended as neutral fact. Hopefully the lion of positivism has made its last roar and we can learn from advances in philosophy and science since the time of Darwin. If we can learn from our mistakes, we may expect more productive interchanges in the future. Toward that end we reach. Requesting a (Partial) Retraction from Darrel Falk and BioLogos Origin of Life: Brian Miller Distills a Debate Between Dave Farina and James Tour “A Summary of the Evidence for Intelligent Design”: The Study Guide Presenting origin science ideas from both metaphysical positions — theism and naturalism — in addition to giving an opportunity to choose the most plausible view from the total theoretical spectrum, will also help us become aware of: The process as Bohm described it can sometimes be painful (it was to one of the present authors) but the quest for truth has never been easy, and has on more than a few occasions been known to make one unpopular. Email Print Google+ Linkedin Twitter Share
Leave a Reply Cancel ReplyYour email address will not be published. Print This Post By johnmitchelllikanje on March 1, 2019No Comment Charles G. Finney rolls past Marcus Whitman to win C1 title Subscribe by Email Share on Facebook By JOHN LIKANJEROCHESTER, N.Y. – Charles G. Finney used a big run in the second and third quarters to pull away for a 63-42 win over top-seeded Marcus Whitman in the Section V class C1 final.Leading 23-17 midway through the second period, Keegan Ocorr invigorated the Charles G. Finney Falcons with 12 points during a 22-4 run to take a 45-21 edge in the opening minutes of the third quarter. The senior guard made a pair of layups, a mid-range jumper, a three-pointer and went 3-of-3 from the foul line.“Just having a floor general like him (Ocorr), he can help spark some stuff,” Charles G. Finney head coach Joe Marchand explained.Eighth-grader Markus Robinson knocked down a floater, finished a layup and made a free throw. Senior forward Caleb Anger netted a shot from beyond the arc and Josh Taylor had a layup of his own.During the run, the Falcons held the Marcus Whitman Wildcats to seven turnovers and seven missed field goals in 17 possessions.“When we put the press on and made it an up-and-down game, it slowed their (Marcus Whitman) offense up, got them out of sync a little bit and allowed us to play the pace that we wanted to play at,” Marchand explained.Ocorr scored 25 of his game-high 28 points in the first three quarters as the Falcons had a 54-33 lead going into the final period. The senior guard grabbed six rebounds, swiped four steals and handed out a pair of assists.“He runs the whole show on offense,” Marchand said about Ocorr. “He calls the plays, he sets the screens, he tells you who he wants to set the screens. We give him a couple of sets to work with and he finishes it from there.”Robinson netted 12 of his 14 points in the second quarter as the Falcons outscored the Wildcats, 22-11. The eighth-grade guard collected five rebounds and dished out three assists.“We told Markus to try to go out there and score 35,” Marchand said about Robinson. “We told him ‘Markus, penetrate. You’re strong, you can finish, you can get through those guys.’ We just told him ‘Go to the basket.’For Marcus Whitman, Liam Prendergast had 12 of his team-high 14 points through the first 16 minutes of game play. The junior forward pulled down nine rebounds, had two assists, blocked two shots and swiped a pair of steals.Jon Donovan scored nine of his 11 points in the second half. The senior guard grabbed eight rebounds, had two steals and two assists.The Falcons claim their third sectional title in the last four years. Head coach Joe Marchand’s squad won back-to-back class D1 sectional titles in 2016 and 2017.Charles G. Finney will play Lyons in the New York State Far West Class C Sub-Regional on Monday.C.G. FINNEY (19-3)Keegan Ocorr 9-13 7-11 28; Markus Robinson 6-14 2-5 14; Caleb Anger 3-8 1-29; Josh Taylor 2-5 3-4 7; Xavier Smith 2-6 0-0 4; Jake Torrell 0-0 1-2 1;Jadon Marques 0-0 0-0 0; Steve Folkerts 0-0 0-0 0; James Sidorishin 0-0 0-00; Matt Magliato 0-1 0-0 0; Dan Sideorishin 0-0 0-0 0; Tremell Hale 0-1 0-00. Totals 22-48 14-24 63.MARCUS WHITMAN (20-3)Liam Prendergast 6-9 2-4 14; Jon Donovan 4-16 2-3 11; Ryan Herod 2-6 0-0 5;Aiden Royston 2-5 0-0 4; Noah Hildreth 1-4 0-0 3; Zack Lovejoy 1-1 0-0 3;Seth Benedict 1-8 0-0 2; Christian Daniels 0-0 0-0 0; Connor Tomion 0-1 0-00; Jordan Lahue 0-2 0-0 0; Carson Miller 0-0 0-0 0; DeCouteau Blueye 0-0 0-00. Totals 17-52 4-7 42.C.G. Finney………………. 17 22 15 9 – 63Marcus Whitman……………. 10 11 12 9 – 423-point goals–C.G. Finney 5-14 (Keegan Ocorr 3-5; Caleb Anger 2-4; JoshTaylor 0-1; Xavier Smith 0-2; Matt Magliato 0-1; Markus Robinson 0-1),Marcus Whitman 4-21 (Zack Lovejoy 1-1; Noah Hildreth 1-4; Jon Donovan 1-6;Ryan Herod 1-5; Connor Tomion 0-1; Jordan Lahue 0-2; Seth Benedict 0-2).Fouled out–C.G. Finney-None, Marcus Whitman-None. Rebounds–C.G. Finney 34(Caleb Anger 9), Marcus Whitman 26 (Liam Prendergast 9). Assists–C.G.Finney 10 (Markus Robinson 3; Caleb Anger 3), Marcus Whitman 10 (Jon Donovan2; Jordan Lahue 2; Liam Prendergast 2). Total fouls–C.G. Finney 13, MarcusWhitman 19. Technical fouls–C.G. Finney-None, Marcus Whitman-None. A-1000 Follow on Facebook Connect on Linked in Add to Google+ Charles G. Finney rolls past Marcus Whitman to win C1 title added by johnmitchelllikanje on March 1, 2019View all posts by johnmitchelllikanje →FacebookTwitter分享by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksSponsor ContentBig Data Courses | Search AdOnline Big Data Courses Might Be Better than You ThinkBig Data Courses | Search AdCosmoWomensTop 30 Most Beautiful Women in the WorldCosmoWomensAirPhysioThis All-Natural “Lung Cleaning” Device Helps Anyone Breathe EasierAirPhysioby Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksMore from Pickin’ SplintersBaron keeps Bonaventure close to his heart – Pickin’ SplintersTah-Jae Hill, Zion Morrison and the Starting Five – Pickin’ Splinters”If you had a Mount Rushmore of MCC baseball, he’s on there.” Longtime assistant Jack Christensen passes away – Pickin’ Splinters This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.